Yalding Crops in 1336

Yalding Crops in 1336

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Hugh de Audley65-214943
John Gifford 20-28416
Gilbert Hughes10-26210
1Benedict Dunn 4-2325
2Aymer Walter 222325
3John Nash215136
4Henry Furner-11112
5Walter Herenden-11112
6Gilbert Payne-22222
7John Hale-16113
8Henry Rolfe-22222
9Thomas Brooker-2-222
10Stephen Webb-2-222
11Geoffrey Fletcher-41-12
12Thomas Wood -22222
13John Brickenden-11112
14Emma Ashdown-11111
15Robert Golding-2-222
16Rosamond Kynton-2-222
17Juliana Foreman-11112
18Margaret Chowring-11112
19Elizabeth Clarke8-2648
20Elicia Godfrey-2-222
21Richard Bennett161124
22Agnes Singyard-11111
23Gilbert Baker221423
24Adam Fleete-11111
25Rosa Seamark-11111
26Cecilia Barfoot-11111
27Margaret Mannering-11111
28Alice Taylor9-2448
29Matthew Ward-11111
30Emma Brattle-11111
31Joanna Browne-1-111
32Mariota Cooper-1-111
33Joanna Cheeseman-11112
34Cristina Carpenter-11111
35Alice Minchen-11111
36Matilda Bigge-11112

A Brief History of the Hop Industry in Kent

No crop is more closely associated with Kent than the hop, even if the hop-garden is now quite rare. The collective memory is kept alive by physical evidence of the distinctive oast-house, by the Museum of Kent Life (sic) and other attractions. Literary reinforcement comes from writers drawn to describe the annual trek of East-enders ‘hopping down in Kent’. In the nineteenth century, the hop was the best recorded of all crops because, uniquely, it was dutiable at the point of production, and because of its importance for employment. The main sources are the Excise records from 1807 to 1861, tithe commutation records, estate records and official enquiries in 1835, 1857 and 1890. Directly and indirectly, much of the agricultural history of Kent, by parish, is to be found there. Hops are not native to this country, but Kent was an ‘early adopter’. Imported hop seeds were found in the remains of a tenth century boat found at Graveney, presumably to serve the requirements of the monks at Canterbury. i Port books show that hops were still imported into Kent in the sixteenth century. The Tudors encouraged hop growing as a form of import substitution, and in 1524 granted a licence to Sir Edward Guildford of Kent to export hops. Flemish growers were attracted to the county. In 1574, Reynolde Scot, of Ashford, wrote a very practical handbook for prospective hop growers. ii By 1655, a return of the national acreage of hops showed that one-third lay in Kent. Celia Fiennes noted ‘the great Hopyards on both sides of the road’ between Sittingbourne and Canterbury in 1697. iii Houghton referred to massive hop production around Maidstone in 1699. Defoe described East Kent as the ‘Mother of all Hop Grounds’ in 1725. iv

There are three areas where the soil, climate and aspect are good for hops:

  • East Kent, with its brick-earths, mainly around Faversham and Canterbury, always known for high quality hops
  • Mid-Kent, mainly the Medway valley, including the Maidstone district, on the Lower Greensand
  • Weald and High Weald, particularly the East Peckham and Yalding, and the large parishes to the south and east of Yalding, with their Weald Clay and Tunbridge Wells Sand.

But the map shows that, in the nineteenth century, hops were grown in just about every parish in Kent. We still see oast-houses high on the North Downs, to cater for hops once grown on that unpropitious clay-with-flint, overlying chalk. Thus, favourable physical conditions do not fully explain the hop phenomenon in Kent. We have to look for other reasons.

The most obvious reason has to do with the brewer. Beer production in parts of Kent in the eighteenth century would have far exceeded local consumption, as local brewers met the demands of the Navy at Chatham and Deal. Later, export of beer increased demand. More important were the London brewers. Their need for hops was met through Southwark, easily accessed from Kent. The hop market was itself highly organised, with a sophisticated arrangement of merchants (acting for the brewers) and factors (acting for the hop growers), and highly developed support mechanisms of credit, transportation, warehousing, and distribution.

The next has to do with the county’s traditionally wide use of agricultural land. Kent’s ‘yeomen’ farmers were disposed towards agricultural diversity. They were content that they or their tenants should plant half an acre or two of hops alongside their existing system. Even very small husbandmen might cultivate a few hops – it is not coincidental that we use the expression ‘hop garden’. Larger landowners sometimes made it a condition that a lessee grow hops, and even build an oast-house at his own expense.

Profit was the motivation behind such widespread cultivation. An acre of two of hops could be as profitable as fifty acres of arable. The capital investment needed, of course, was much higher. Figures of £125 per acre, against £10- 12 for arable were quoted in 1857. v But hops could also be a dead loss. In years of abundance, the grower might decide it cheaper not to pick his hops than to bear the costs of picking, drying, bagging and the payment of the excise duty. On the other hand, the hop could be destroyed by wilt, or by the weather, hours before picking. Then the grower, whose crop was not destroyed, might achieve sale prices in excess of £20 per cwt. Betting on the hop yield was common, perhaps as a financial ‘hedge’. Estimates of yields were published weekly in Kentish newspapers. vi

For all these reasons, hops were huge business in Kent in the nineteenth century. James Ellis, the greatest hop grower in England in 1825 had 500 acres of hops around Barming, Maidstone. He employed 4,000 people for one month at picking time. 43,614 acres were dedicated to hops in 1875, or a massive 51% of that used for all green crops and 9% of total agricultural land use. vii Kent’s share of the total national hop acreage from 1850-1900 was about 60%. In the ten years from 1847, Kent had an average of 2,822 hop growers compared with 1,468 in Sussex, and 1,355 in Worcester. In that period, the average acreage in Kent was 9.7 acres. The yield per acre ranged from 1.45 cwt to 13.14 cwt, with corresponding price volatility. The yield trended up in the course of the century but in no period of seven years did it reach 10 cwt per 25 acre. Yields in Kent were always greater than elsewhere.

Kent’s growers did not have it all their own way. The men from the West Midlands never allowed Kent to drive them out of business (and gradually closed the yield gap). The sophistication of the market arrangements probably worked to Kent’s disadvantage in that they lost (or never had), with their largest customers, the sort of direct relationship that growers from Worcester developed with Midlands brewers. Kent growers were variously accused of packing together hops of mixed quality and variety, or paying insufficient attention to the drying process, or of adulterating hops with sulphur. viii (But local brewers anyway were very conservative, and nurtured long and exclusive supply arrangements that were important in times of shortage, but did nothing to promote innovation and discrimination.) For two centuries Kent’s growers trained hops up (plentiful) poles, just as Scot had shown them, before they introduced wiring. It is quite an indictment that in 1875 Brenchley’s Richard Fuggle introduced a winning new variety, which was taken up more enthusiastically in Worcester than at home. In Kent, they persevered with the prolific and ‘spurious’ Colegate, instead of focusing on the high value Golding and its derivatives. The reason was recognised by mid-century. In Kent, the hope of quick profit lured men of insufficient capital technical development of the product could not be sustained. ix In today’s business jargon, we would say that Kent did not invest sufficiently in its hop ‘brand’. Brewer Michael Bass claimed that price aside, he would prefer Bavarian hops to English. x

The twentieth century was one of inexorable decline for the English hop. Brewers use hops in pelletized form from China and the USA. Kent has less than 3,000 acres, (but yields are about twice what they used to be), but maintains its leading position in another way, through the research done at Wye. The new ‘hedgerow’ hops cost less to grow, can be picked by machine, are more resistant to disease and require lower chemical inputs, and should provide the range of alpha acid intensities and of flavours demanded by brewers. But will they be grown in Kent?

Yalding Crops in 1336 - History

The annual round of farm work began in late spring with hop training and throughout the summer and autumn Gypsy Travellers moved from farm to farm as each crop needed harvesting.

Cherries, strawberries, blackcurrants during high summer as well as peas, beans and other vegetables were needed to be quickly gathered in as they ripened.

The hops were ready in September followed by apples and pears in the autumn and potato picking up in early winter.

They might stay on for a while after picking finished on one farm before moving on to the next, perhaps breaking their journey with overnight stops on commons.

Places like Yalding Lees or Hothfield Common near Ashford were traditional stopping places where Gypsy families might stop for a day or two before moving on.

During the winter months most local Travellers would find a place to stop on the edge of the larger towns or the urban fringes of south east London where there were large traditional stopping places that had been used by Travellers for generations.

Ash Tree Lane in Chatham was one such place, as were the marshes along the Thames at Erith, the disused chalk pit at Ruxley near Sidcup and Corke's Meadow in St Mary Cray.

Winter money could be earned by making and selling wooden clothes pegs, primrose baskets or decorative wooden flowers from door to door. Men could find casual labouring work or offer services such as knife grinding, woven cane chair repairing or tree pruning.

Other Travellers made a living as hawkers or general dealers. In past centuries most country towns and villages were too small to support permanent traders, apart from perhaps a black smith and a few other specialist craftsmen.

They mainly relied instead on travelling pedlars and hawkers to come to them to supply their needs for the few material possessions that they needed.

A family of basket sellers in Halstead near Sevenoaks

These itinerant salesman would trade as they travelled, dealing in all manner of essential domestic goods and other less important but nevertheless desirable items like ornaments, trinkets and finery.

As well as hawking their wares as they passed through towns and villages, there were the annual fair days when large numbers of travelling salesman would arrive and set up shop.

Most villages and towns had at least one or two fair days a year, but they were very different occasions to the fun fairs of today.

Originally they were simply the days when farmers would bring their produce to town or when livestock was traded, such as the annual Goose Fair at Challock near Ashford.

Over the centuries the fairs evolved, eventually becoming as much a social event as an opportunity for business.

By Victorian times in addition to the traders were all manner of travelling showmen were on the circuit, actors playing on temporary stages, fighters sparring in boxing booths, dancing bears, acrobats, freak shows, musicians, quack doctors with dubious remedies all jostled for position to relieve the crowds of their money.

Yalding in Kent

Gaeling or Haelling was a Saxon boundary fort settled in the late 400s AD and was probably built to control the crossing of the medway.

The name is recorded in the Domesday book as the Saxon manor of Hallinges owned by Aldret, and that it was given to Richard de Tonbridge by William the Conqueror . The name had changed to Yaldinge by the time of the civil war (1642 - 1648).

An original Saxon village known as Twyford 'twin ford' was found on the the point where the Medway and Teise joined. It is believed that flooding moved the village uphill to its present location. It is probable that the bridge at Twyford was constructed before Town Bridge, as this was the main crossing point of the rivers, and would have been impassable when heavy rain had fallen.

Town bridge, the main crossing point within the current village over the river Beult is a stone bridge about 450 ft long and was constructed in the 1400's probably on the site of an old wooden structure. This bridge is the longest surviving medieval bridge in Kent, and is very attractive .

The village does not appear to have been badly hit by the early occurrences of the Black Death but in 1510 the pestilence claimed half the village.

This Wealden iron industry was important to the area, as Yalding was a main shipment point for the cannons manufactured at nearby Horsmonden and other villages, to the naval base at Chatham. The Iron Master John Browne from Horsmonden shipped most of his cannons from Yalding .

During the Civil War in 1643, a Battle took place at Town Bridge between the Roundheads and Cavaliers. The Cavaliers had advanced from Aylesford towards Tonbridge , but the Parliamentarian Soldiers had marched to block their movements, bombarded them and forced their surrender. Equipment for about 600 men was seized, but only 300 were captured, the rest escaping into the Weald.

When the iron industry had declined, the area around Yalding reverted to its original farming industries, mostly fruit farming with apples and pears being very common. Yalding was a good shipping point for the fruit due to its navigable river, the Medway providing access to the sea.

The hop growing industry was also within the area, but declined in the early 1900's.

The nearest major shopping centre is at Maidstone about 6 miles to the east which provides major supermarkets and facilities.

Tuscaloosa County

Clark Hall Located in the west-central part of the state and home to the state's largest university, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa County is the birthplace of "Queen of the Blues" Dinah Washington (1924-1963), one of the most influential vocalists of the twentieth century, and National Football League star John Stallworth of the Pittsburgh Steelers. The county was also home to arguably the most celebrated college football coach of the twentieth century, Paul "Bear" Bryant, as well as the state's first woman Alabama's governor, Lurleen Wallace. The city of Tuscaloosa served as the state capital from 1826 to 1845. Tuscaloosa County is governed by an elected five-member commission and includes the incorporated cities of Coaling, Northport, and Tuscaloosa.
  • Founding Date: February 6, 1818
  • Area: 1,336 square miles
  • Population: 202,471 (2016 Census estimate)
  • Major Waterways: Black Warrior River, Tombigbee River
  • Major Highways: Interstate 20/59, U.S. 43, U.S. 82, U.S. 11
  • County Seat: Tuscaloosa
  • Largest City: Tuscaloosa
Tuscaloosa County Courthouse Tuscaloosa County is one of the oldest counties in Alabama. The Alabama General Assembly created Tuscaloosa County on February 6, 1818, from lands ceded by the Creeks and Choctaws. The county name mostly likely derives from Tuskaloosa, a Mississippian chieftain who was killed in battle by forces commanded by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1540. The county's earliest settlers came from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Some of the earliest towns included Newton, Northport, Holt, Coaling, and Tuscaloosa. The city of Tuscaloosa was designated the state capitol in 1826 and served in that capacity until 1845, when the seat of government was moved to the more centrally located Montgomery. While Tuscaloosa served as the state capitol, a charter for the establishment of the first public university was issued in 1827. In 1831, the University of Alabama officially opened its doors with an enrollment of 52 students. Lime Cola Bottling Plant Tuscaloosa was designated as the county seat of Tuscaloosa County in 1819, and in 1822, the county seat was moved to Newton, just a few miles from Tuscaloosa. Within a few short years, Newton was incorporated into Tuscaloosa, and Tuscaloosa again became the county seat in 1826. Many of the original structures, including the courthouse, were destroyed in a tornado that swept through in the 1840s. The present courthouse, a modern brick structure, was built in 1964 and has undergone several renovations and additions. Downtown Northport According to 2016 Census estimates, the population of Tuscaloosa County was 202,471. Of that total, 65.4 percent of respondents identified themselves as white, 31.0 percent as African American, 3.3 percent as Hispanic, 1.5 percent as Asian, 1.0 percent as two or more races, and 0.1 percent as Native American. The county seat Tuscaloosa is the largest city in Tuscaloosa County, with an estimated population of 96,352. Other significant population centers in the county include Northport, Holt, Coker, Lake View, Brookwood, and Coaling. The median household income was $48,022, compared with $44,758 for the state as a whole, and the per capita income was $23,896 compared with $24,736 for the state as a whole. Mercedes-Benz Production Line Farming was the prevailing occupation in Tuscaloosa County throughout the nineteenth century, and the most significant agricultural crops were wheat, corn, and oats. Tuscaloosa County also sits atop the Warrior Coal Field, and coal mining was important to the county's economy as well. Extensive forests in the northern part of the county brought timber industries to the county during the early to mid-nineteenth century as well. With the introduction of hydroelectric power in the early twentieth century, industrial growth boomed. Today, the county's economy is diverse and expanding, especially along the Interstate 20/59 Industrial Corridor, where automotive parts, electronics, plastics, wood products, food products, and chemicals are manufactured and produced. Healthcare and education account for roughly 30 percent of the non-agricultural workforce, and Tuscaloosa County has drawn major investments from companies in Germany and Japan.
  • Educational services, and health care and social assistance (30.5 percent)
  • Manufacturing (14.2 percent)
  • Retail trade (10.7 percent)
  • Arts, entertainment, recreation, and accommodation and food services (8.8 percent)
  • Professional, scientific, management, and administrative and waste management services (7.5 percent)
  • Construction (6.4 percent)
  • Other services, except public administration (4.9 percent)
  • Finance and insurance, and real estate, rental, and leasing (4.1 percent)
  • Transportation and warehousing, and utilities (4.0 percent)
  • Public administration (3.6 percent)
  • Wholesale trade (1.8 percent)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and extractive (1.7 percent)
  • Information (1.7 percent)
Stillman College The Tuscaloosa County school system employs approximately 2,000 teachers and administrators who serve nearly 16,000 students in 30 primary and secondary schools. Tuscaloosa city schools employ more than 1,300 teachers and administrators in 20 primary and secondary schools, serving more than 9,700 students. There are three institutions of higher education in Tuscaloosa city. The University of Alabama is the state's major research university and Alabama's first public college. The county is also home to Stillman College, a historically black, four-year liberal-arts instutution, and Shelton State Community College, a two-year institution offering academic and technical degree programs. Tuscaloosa County Map Comprising 1,336 square miles in west-central Alabama, Tuscaloosa County is the second largest county in area in the state. The county straddles the Cumberland Plateau and East Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic sections of the Atlantic Plain region, resulting in a diverse geography that is forested and hilly in the northeast and low-lying and occasionally swampy in the southwest. The county is bordered by Fayette and Walker Counties to the north, Jefferson and Bibb Counties to the east, Hale County to the south, Greene County to the southwest, and Pickens County to the west. Historic Furnaces at Tannehill There are many recreational opportunities for visitors to Tuscaloosa County. Lake Lurleen State Park, named for Governor Lurleen Wallace, is located about 10 minutes from downtown Tuscaloosa and offers 1,600 acres for camping and hiking and a 250-acre lake for swimming and fishing. Located 15 miles south of Tuscaloosa is Moundville Archaeological Park, part of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, and is the site of a Mississippian settlement. The 320-acre park includes nature trails, Native American village reconstructions, and a museum that houses artifacts and documents relating to Native American cultures in the area. A portion of Tannehill Ironworks Historical State Park, built around the pre-Civil War Tannehill Iron Works, spreads across the wooded hills of eastern Tuscaloosa County, although most of the park is located in neighboring Jefferson County. The park contains a monument to the Confederacy and offers camping, hiking, golfing, hiking, and swimming. Special events at the park include an annual re-eanactment of a Civil War battle and monthly trade days. Other outdoor recreational areas in Tuscaloosa County include Lake Tuscaloosa, Holt Lake, and Lake Nichol. In addition, the Tuscaloosa County Park and Recreation Authority operates 31 small public parks totaling 1,700 acres. Basilosaurus cetoides Tuscaloosa County is home to a number of museums and cultural centers. The Alabama Museum of Natural History, located in Smith Hall on the University of Alabama campus, displays fossils, rocks, and minerals. The Mildred Westervelt Warner Transportation Museum celebrates role that transportation has played in Tuscaloosa's history and culture. The Murphy African-American Museum at the Murphy-Collins House in Tuscaloosa was home to William J. Murphy, the first licensed African American mortician in Alabama, and features Murphy family memorabilia as well as other artifacts representative of the lifestyle of affluent African Americans at the turn of the century. Celebrating more than 100 years of Crimson Tide football and multiple national championships, the Paul W. Bryant Museum on the University of Alabama campus houses a re-creation of Bear Bryant's office along with other football memorabilia. The Children's Hands-On Museum provides educational experience for children of all ages through hands-on exhibits, programs, and special events.

Kentuck Arts Festival Other places and events of interest in Tuscaloosa County include the Kentuck Art Center in Northport. The gallery features rotating monthly exhibits of regional artists and hosts the annual Kentuck Arts Festival. At the Mercedes-Benz Visitor's Center in Vance, visitors can tour the plant and trace the history of Mercedes-Benz from 1886 to the present. Tuscaloosa County is home to many historic buildings as well, including the Jemison-Van de Graaff Mansion, the Old Tavern, the Historic Drish House, and the Battle-Friedman House in Tuscaloosa, the Denny Chimes Tower and Gorgas House on the campus of the University of Alabama, and the Mildred Warner House.

The Heritage of Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. Clanton, Ala.: Heritage Publishing Consultants, 1999.

Yalding Crops in 1336 - History

Mr. Jose Bujanda was born on August 6, 1939, in Granados, Sonora his father was an animal herder and his mother was a housewife he had 5 sisters of whom he was the eldest and only son Mr. Bujanda had a 6 children, only one lives in the United States.

Summary of Interview

Mr. Bujanda education was limited to the third grade because he had to help his father harvest crops he started working at a very young age in his father’s corn field, his duties included irrigating, planting seeds and harvesting corn at the age of 15 Mr. Bujanda traveled to Hermosillo to harvest cotton, soon after he traveled to Sonora where he was working as a tractor operator before becoming a Bracero in 1959, Mr. Bujanda was working as a chauffeur and to this day that is his permanent job Mr. Bujanda’s first Bracero experience was in Caléxico, California where he harvested beetroot and lettuce, getting a total of .90 per hour he remembers waking up every day at 3 in the morning to shower and eat breakfast, which was always pancakes and eggs for lunch Mr. Bujanda remembers eating ground beef everyday accompanied by a fruit in 1960 Mr. Bujanda got re-contracted as a Bracero, this time he was sent to Salinas, California where he harvested lettuce later he departed to Morgan Hill, California where he worked in a small farm harvesting strawberries Mr. Bujanda remembers that there was always police roaming around the fields in case that workers started fighting he states that he was lucky enough to never got sick, and that his boss was always nice in giving sick people the day off after finishing up his Bracero contract, Mr. Bujanda moved back to Mexico where he met his wife and had 6 children Mr. Bujanda declares that the Bracero movement had a negative impact in his life, stating that the pay was not good enough and getting fumigated every time he departed to work.

Ashikaga Period (1336 – 1568)

After a three-year-long interregnum known as the Kemmu Restoration (1333 – 1336), during which the Emperor Go-Daigo futilely attempted to reassert imperial rule, the Ashikaga Period, also known as the Muromachi Period, was inaugurated with the naming of Ashikaga Takauji as shōgun. The period is typically marked by two eras—the Southern and Northern Courts (Nanbokuchō) Era and the Warring States (Sengoku) Era. During the former, from 1336 to 1392, the Ashikaga shogunate established a Northern Imperial Court and warred against the Southern Imperial Court of Go-Daigo, with the Northern Imperial Court emerging victorious. (Historians, however, regard the Northern imperial line as illegitimate and do not include Northern emperors in the official imperial succession.) During the later Warring States Era (1467 – 1573), restless daimyō vied for greater provincial autonomy, resulting in a long period of internecine warfare and social disturbance, culminating in the emergence of a triumvirate of would-be national pacifiers —Oda Nobunaga (1534 –1582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536 – 1598), and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543 – 1616).

It was during the Ashikaga Period that the first Europeans arrived in Japan, Portuguese missionaries and traders who sailed ashore at southern Kyūshū in 1543. Also during this time, trade with the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) reached new heights, and Zen-inspired art was in its golden age.

Architecture is perhaps India’s greatest glory. Among the most-renowned monuments are many cave temples hewn from rock (of which those at Ajanta and Ellora are most noteworthy) the Sun Temple at Konarak (Konarka) the vast temple complexes at Bhubaneshwar, Khajuraho, and Kanchipuram (Conjeeveram) such Mughal masterpieces as Humayun’s tomb and the Taj Mahal and, from the 20th century, buildings such as the High Court in the planned city of Chandigarh, designed by the Swiss-born architect Le Corbusier, and the Bhopal State Assembly building in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, designed by the Indian architect and urban planner Charles Correa. Also notable are stepwells, such as the Rani ki Vav (“Queen’s Stepwell”) in Patan (northern Gujarat), now a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Other traditional art forms in India—painting, embroidery, pottery, ornamental woodworking and metalworking, sculpture, lacquerware, and jewelry—are also well represented. Much of the best work resulted from patronage by the court (often being produced in royally endowed workshops), by temples, and by wealthy individuals. Vigorous folk traditions have a very long history, as witnessed by the ancient rock paintings found in scores of caves across India.


Selection Pressure and Techniques

A schema for the enhancement of apios germplasm which illustrates the techniques currently being utilized or under development is presented in Fig. 4. Gene Pool I represents a starting point. Conventional and in vitro techniques might be applied so that an enhanced germplasm is obtained. The sequence of events may be repeated for subsequent generations with perhaps a different emphasis allotted to the various techniques.

Germplasm Acquisition

Apios flourishes along streams and rivers and its tubers are readily distributed downstream as stream banks are eroded. Hence, the various river drainage areas represent natural habitats for apios with the foci for genetic diversity occurring near the river mouths. In addition, old Indian campsites might harbor remnants of selected germplasm if the Indians who lived there and ate apios exerted any selection pressure for its improvement.

Those states from which germplasm has been collected are indicated in Fig. 1. A large majority of the germplasm tested was collected from the lower Mississippi valley, followed by Florida and the Outer Banks of North Carolina. An association of blooming dates with latitude of collection site has been observed. When planted in Louisiana, the more northern lines tend to bloom earlier than southern lines.

Where possible, seeds instead of tubers are collected from wild sites. Seeds are easier to harvest and store, and the variability of a population is more likely to be expressed from plants coming from seeds than from tuber-derived plants. Visual evaluation of tubers randomly harvested from wild sites has been unreliable for predicting performance under field conditions.

After drying at room temperature seeds are sealed in glass jars and stored in a freezer at -10°C. After harvest, tubers are washed, allowed to air dry until surface moisture has evaporated, and stored in plastic bags at 5°C in the dark until used. Tubers left in a low humidity environment will desiccate and die. Tubers have dormancy properties that appear to be associated with genotype and possibly the relative positions along the rhizome. Storage at 5deg.C for two to three months is generally sufficient to break or reduce dormancy, although germination after planting is seldom uniform. No dormancy for seeds has been observed.

Field Evaluation and Selections

Open Pollination

Controlled Crosses

Virtually nothing has been reported about the genetics of apios. Genetic studies have been made difficult by the inability to readily make specific crosses and by the rapid turnover in the gene pool resulting from the selection process.

In vitro Techniques

Robertson County

Robertson County is ninety miles northeast of Austin in the Claypan area of east central Texas. The center of the county is at 31°00' north latitude and 96°30' west longitude, near the county seat of Franklin. The county is bounded on the north by Limestone and Leon counties, on the east by Brazos and Madison counties, on the south by Burleson County, and on the west by Milam and Falls counties. State Highway 6 crosses the county north to south, and U.S. Highway 79 runs from east to west. In addition, the Union Pacific Railroad follows Highway 79 across the county, and another branch of the Union Pacific (formerly the Southern Pacific) parallels State Highway 6. These two lines intersect at Hearne,and yet another branch of the Union Pacific runs along the western boundary of the county. Robertson County covers 854 square miles of flat to gently rolling terrain, with elevations ranging from 250 to 500 feet. The county is bounded by the Brazos River in the west, the Navasota River in the east, and the Old San Antonio Road in the south. The region is characterized by rich river bottoms, upland prairies, and timberland that supports post oak, black jack oak, cottonwood, elm, pecan, and mesquite trees. Drainage flows in two directions from a ridge near mid-county, creeks run toward either the Brazos or the Navasota rivers. The Brazos Bottom, located between the Brazos and Little Brazos River, contains 150,000 acres of fertile delta land. Along the Trinity River are undulating to rolling soils with very dark, loamy surfaces over mottled, cracking, clayey subsoils. Most of the remainder of the county has level to undulating soils with light colored, loamy or sandy surfaces over clayey or loamy subsoils. Between 1 and 10 percent of the county land is considered prime farmland. Natural resources include lignite coal and oil. Wildlife in the county includes squirrels, various species of bats and skunks, and small herbivores such as gophers, mice, rabbits, and armadillos, as well as raccoons, white-tailed deer, opossums, bobcats, coyotes, and red and grey foxes. Frogs, toads, and numerous snake species, including the poisonous copperhead, cottonmouth, coral snake, and rattlesnake are found. A wide variety of birds-mockingbirds, cardinals, doves, quail, and bluejays, to name a few-are also native to the area. The climate is subtropical humid, with warm summers and mild winters. The average annual relative humidity is 83 percent at 6 A. M., and the average rainfall is thirty-eight inches. The average annual temperature is 68° F. Temperatures in January range from an average low of 38° to an average high of 59° F and in July range from 73° to 96° F. The growing season averages 265 days per year, with the last freeze in early March and the first freeze in early December.

The area which now comprises Robertson County has long been the site of human habitation. Numerous artifacts from the Paleo-Indian (10,000&ndash6,000 B.C.) and Archaic (6,000&ndash200 B.C.) cultures have been found in the area, suggesting that it has been continuously occupied for more than 10,000 years. When the first Europeans arrived in the region it was dominated by Tawakoni, Tonkawa, and Waco Indians. Occasionally, Comanches, Kiowas, and Lipan-Apaches made forays into the area, hunting buffalo on the open upland prairies and raiding enemy Indian villages. Large buffalo herds grazed upon the open prairies between the Trinity and Brazos rivers, attracting these nomadic tribes of the Great Plains. The first European to set foot on the area of future Robertson County was probably Domingo Terán de los Ríos, who passed through the region on his way to Northeast Texas in 1690. In 1716 Domingo Ramón traversed the area as he traveled across Texas to found Spanish missions in East Texas. Although occasional groups of priests or soldiers stopped in the area on their trek to resupply the missions of East Texas, no permanent settlements were made during the Spanish period. Following the Mexican War of Independence Anglo-American interest in the area grew. In 1822 a group of buffalo hunters camped at the Brazos crossing of the Old San Antonio Road, and in 1823 six families from Kentucky built a temporary settlement at the mouth of the Little River. The same year Sterling C. Robertson, his cousin Felix Robertson, and several other Tennesseeans representing the Texas Association of Nashville explored the area with the view of eventually colonizing it. On April 15, 1825, Robert Leftwich, acting as agent for the Texas Association, received a contract from the Mexican government to settle 800 families in an area bounded on the south by the Old San Antonio Road, on the north by the Comanche Trace, on the east by the Navasota River, and on the west by the watershed separating the Brazos and Colorado rivers. Leftwich, however, received the grant in his own name and upon his return to Nashville was forced to resign and sell his interest to the investment group. In 1826 Felix Robertson, who served as president of the group, led a party of thirty Tennesseeans to Texas, establishing a camp at the mouth of the Little Brazos. But attempts to colonize the area were stalled by the outbreak of the Fredonian Rebellion and by land claims made by squatters who had moved into the area between 1824 and 1826. In 1827 the Mexican government approved the transfer of Leftwich's grant to the Texas Association and substituted another member of the group, Hosea H. League, as empresario. Under the new contract the grant boundaries were expanded to include an area second in size only to Stephen F. Austin's League subsequently established an office at San Felipe de Austin and awaited the arrival of families recruited to settle in the colony but was implicated as an accomplice in a local murder and jailed. Sterling C. Robertson replaced League, officially assuming authority as the company's agent on October 10, 1830. Robertson's attempts to bring settlers into the area, however, were hampered by the Law of April 6, 1830, which suspended the operation of the colony's contract for four years.

In 1831 Stephen F. Austin petitioned the Mexican government for a grant covering the land previously awarded the Texas Association. A new contract issued by Mexican authorities conveyed to Austin and his new partner, Samuel May Williams, the right to colonize the area previously granted to Robertson and his group. Robertson challenged Austin's action, first in the local courts and later in the Texas legislature. Both the court and legislature sustained Robertson claims, and the government voided the Austin-Williams contract, recognizing the land titles of the Nashville company. Nevertheless the episode began a legal battle to clear land titles in Robertson County that continued until it was finally settled by the Texas Supreme Court in 1847. During the early 1830s Sterling Robertson worked tirelessly to make the project a reality. He made numerous trips to and from Texas, recruiting and escorting settlers to the area. In many instances Robertson put up his own money to finance the venture, which came to be called Robertson's colony. Despite continued legal battles and other obstacles, small groups of colonists began to gradually settle in the area. In 1832 James Dunn constructed a fort at a site later known as Old Cobb Prairie, and the following year the settlement of Wheelock was established. During the Runaway Scrape in 1836 much of the area was abandoned, but after the Texan victory at the battle of San Jacinto it was quickly reoccupied.

On December 14, 1837, the First Texas Congress passed a measure establishing Robertson County from portions of Milam, Bexar, and Nacogdoches counties and naming it in honor of Sterling Robertson. When the county was organized the following year, the settlement of Franklin (usually referred to as Old Franklin today to differentiate it from the present county seat also named Franklin), which served as headquarters for surveyors of a land district including present Leon, Freestone, Limestone, Navarro, and other counties, became the county seat. Over the next nine years sixteen counties were carved from its original jurisdiction, and the county only assumed its present limits in 1846. In 1850 the county residents voted to move the county seat from Old Franklin to Wheelock because the town was closer to the most heavily populated areas of the area. Six years later the county seat was once again moved, this time to a new town, Owensville, near the geographical center of the county, where it remained until after the Civil War. During the mid-1830s Robertson County was the scene of numerous battles between Anglo-American settlers and Indians. Among the most famous was the May 19, 1836, attack on Fort Parker during which Cynthia Ann Parker, mother of Chief Quanah Parker, was taken captive. The Indian raids, however, began to abate after 1838, when a company of Texas Rangers commanded by Eli Chandler was stationed at Old Franklin. By the time Texas joined the United States in 1846, the frontier had pushed farther west, and Indian raids in Robertson County had become infrequent.

During the 1840s the number of settlers increased slowly as late as 1850 the population was only 934. But during the next decade numerous new settlers arrived to take advantage of the fertile bottom land along the Brazos and Navasota rivers. In just ten years, from 1850 to 1860, the population grew more than five-fold, surging to 4,997. Most of new residents were from the Old South, and many of them brought their slaves with them. During the same decade the slave population grew from 264 to 2,258. By 1860 40 percent of the county's families owned one or more slaves, and two of the state's largest slaveholders, B. F. Hammond and Reuben Anderson, each of whom owned 100 or more slaves, lived in the county. The first farms in the county were on the upland prairies, but as the population increased and the Indian threat abated growing numbers of settlers moved into the bottomlands. Between 1835 and 1840 a number of large land owners, including Andrew Cavitt, Liston Purdy, Joseph Webb, and James R. Robertson, established plantations in the Brazos valley. Although cotton was grown as early as 1840, during the decade of 1840s subsistence farming continued to be the rule. But by the early 1850s a thriving plantation economy, based largely on cotton, had begun to emerge. Between 1850 and 1860 the cotton crop increased from 429 to 6,467 bales. The last antebellum decade also witnessed a tripling in corn production, and a five-fold increase in the value of livestock. On the eve of the Civil War Robertson County was in most ways typical of the counties of the region, decidedly Southern in character and outlook, with an rapidly developing plantation economy. Not surprisingly given the large number of slaveholders, the county residents staunchly supported the Southern cause, and nearly 85 percent (391 of 467) of those who went to the polls cast their votes in favor of secession. Robertson County's men also volunteered for the Confederate army in large numbers. Company C, Fourth Texas Regiment, Hood's Texas Brigade, which fought at Gaines Mill, Second Manassas, the Wilderness, Gettysburg, and Chickamauga, was largely recruited in Robertson County. To further support the Confederate cause, Robertson County residents supplied beef and grains to the rebel army, and a number of planters raised the necessary funds to begin construction of a textile and flour mill near the site of present Hearne. Ironically, the war years brought the county unprecedented prosperity. The number of slaves more than doubled (from 1,955 to 4,392), as planters from Arkansas and Louisiana relocated there to protect their slaves from confiscation and prevent them from escaping to the Union lines. This growing labor pool helped to open new land for cotton and boosted production, feeding the growing wartime cotton trade with Mexico. The war's aftermath, however, brought profound changes. Although spared the wartime devastation seen in much of the rest of the Confederacy, Robertson County, like most other Texas counties, felt the stinging effects of the postwar depression. For many of the Whites the abolition of slavery meant tremendous economic loss. Prior to the Civil War slaves had constituted nearly a half of all taxable property in the county, and their loss coupled with a general decline in property values caused a profound disruption for most planters. The African-American population of the county fared even worse. Most Blacks left the farms owned by their former masters to seek better working and living conditions, but for the vast majority, the change brought only marginal improvement. Most ended up working as agricultural laborers or as share croppers, receiving one-third or one-half of the crop for their labors. The economic conditions forced Blacks into dismal living conditions, and in many instances they became objects of violence by White vigilantes.

During Reconstruction Blacks, supported by White Republican allies, managed to briefly exercise political power. On July 12, 1870, the Republican-controlled Twelfth Legislature, in a political move to retain Republican political control of local government in Robertson County, voted to relocate the county seat from Owensville to Calvert. But Whites gradually regained the upper hand in the early 1870s and over the course of the next decade, using intimidation and occasional force, managed to effectively disenfranchise most of the African-American population. Nevertheless in several areas, such as Hearne and Calvert, where there were substantial black majorities, African Americans continued to resist White political domination well into the 1890s. The 1896 elections signaled the return to White supremacy in Robertson County. Whites stood guard at the various polling places throughout the county with rifles, pistols, and sticks, turning away Blacks who ventured forth to vote. Following this election Black voters failed to return to the polls. Besides intimidation and harassment, the poll tax and White Primary effectively disfranchised the county's Black population. County voting totals plummeted 5,500 citizens cast their votes in 1896, but less than 1,500 returned to the polls in 1904. Despite the havoc wrought by the war and Reconstruction, the county began to recover by the late 1860s, in large part due to a rapid increase in population. Between the 1860 and 1870 the number of inhabitants doubled, increasing from 4,997 to 9,990, and in the following decade it more than doubled again, rising to 22,383 in 1880. One reason for the rapid increase in population was a steady influx of White farmers from the states of the Old South, attracted to the county by its abundance of rich and relatively inexpensive land. But even more significant for the rapid growth was a steady rise in the number of Black residents. Because of shortage of labor that followed the Civil War, Brazos valley farmers traveled to parts of the Old South to recruit Black farm hands, who arrived in large numbers over the next decade and a half. As a result by the 1880s Blacks accounted for a majority of the population (53 percent), a position they would continue to occupy until the turn of the century.

Also spurring the postwar recovery was construction of the Houston and Texas Central Railway, which built through the county in the late 1860s. Although a number of towns declined or were abandoned after being bypassed by the railroad, including Wheelock, Owensville, Nashville, Sterling, Staggers Point, Mount Vernon, Little Mississippi, and Port Sullivan, many other communities were founded or began to flourish. In 1878 residents voted to move the county seat to Morgan, on the railroad near the geographical center of the county. When application was made for a post office, the town was renamed Franklin in honor of the original county seat. In 1880 the International-Great Northern was linked with the Houston and Texas Central at Hearne, making it an important rail center. The coming of the railroads and the steady growth in population led to a resurgence of the county's agricultural economy. Over the next three decades both the amount of acreage under cultivation and overall production steadily increased. Cotton, corn, and cattle, which had formed the mainstays of the economy after 1850, continued to be the leading products through the second half of the nineteenth century. But, while agricultural output steadily increased, Robertson County did not escape the hard times experienced by Southern farmers in later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Falling cotton prices and depleted soils reduced profits. To compensate for their shrinking income, large planters increased the acreage allotted to cotton production, and sharecroppers and tenants were forced to do likewise. Acreage in the county devoted to cotton cultivation rose steadily from 50,000 acres in 1880 to 150,000 acres in 1925. Yet despite this three-fold increase in acreage, production barely doubled. Nevertheless, Robertson County farmers annually ginned 30,000 bales from the 1890s until the Great Depression. Corn production ran a poor second. Farmers allocated 34,000 acres to corn production in 1880 and 50,000 in 1910. Production increased, but at a much slower rate. Stock raising, on the other hand, continued to dominate the upland prairies of the county. As in much of the South, sharecropping replaced slavery as the dominant labor system on Robertson County plantations following the Civil War. Large tracts were divided into small parcels that were let to former slaves, poor Whites, or immigrants on a sharecrop basis. By 1910 only 29 percent of all farmers owned the land they worked, while over 60 percent were tenant farmers. By 1930 three out every four farmers (2,936 of 4,065) were tenants. The combination of declining yields and tenancy kept many farmers in permanent debt and brought widespread misery. The harsh conditions led to a decline in population after 1900, as a sizeable number of families left to seek better opportunities elsewhere. Between 1900 and 1910 the population of the county fell by more than 4,000, from 31,480 to 27,454. Contributing most to this decline was the flight of many of the large rural Black population, who left to find work in the cities of the North. The Black exodus combined with a small influx of Whites-mostly recent European immigrants-after 1900 brought an end to the period of Black majority by 1920 Blacks made up only 40 percent of the population, and by 1950 that figure fell below 30 percent. Like most of the state, Robertson County was hit hard by the Great Depression of the 1930s. Particularly affected were the county's farmers, who were forced to endure the combined effects of falling prices, soil depletion, and boll weevil infestations. Those with large landholdings were able to weather the hard times, but many of the county's legions of tenant farmers and share croppers were forced off the land. Between 1930 and 1940 the number of farms in the county fell sharply, from 4,065 to 2,834, and the number of tenants fell by more than half, from 2,936 to 1,693.

Prosperity began to return by the eve of World War II, when both demand and prices for agricultural products increased. Oil was discovered in the county in 1944, providing additional income for some landowners. Since World War II the agricultural scene has seen marked changes. During the late 1940s and 1950s many farmers continued to emphasize cotton farming, but in the 1960s farming was increasingly replaced by ranching. By the 1970s livestock raising-particularly of beef and dairy cattle, hogs, horses, and poultry-had taken center stage, and for the next two decades the majority of the county's agricultural income was from livestock and livestock products. In the years after World War II the population of Robertson County continued to decline. Between 1940 and 1970 the number of inhabitants fell steadily, from 25,710 in 1940 to 14,389 in 1970. After that, however, the population increased slightly to 14,653 in 1980 and 15,511 in 1990. Hearne, with a population of 5,132, was the largest community in 1990, followed by Calvert (1,536), Franklin (1,336), and Bremond (1,110). The majority of the population was White (64.8 percent), with Blacks (27.5 percent) and Hispanics (12.3 percent) forming the largest minorities.

Religion has been important to the citizens of Robertson County since the earliest settlers arrived. Methodist circuit riding ministers traveled the frontier as early as 1835 the reverends Isaac Addison and Robert Alexander were among the first to visit the area. In 1840 a formal circuit ministry, the Nashville Mission, was established and Robert Crawford, a San Jacinto veteran and later a Mier Expedition participant, served in the area. Z. N. Morrell, Baptist missionary and author of Flowers and Fruits from the Wilderness (1872), arrived just prior to Texas's move for independence. Morrell headed the Baptist missionary effort in the region throughout the 1840s. The first Union Church was founded at Wheelock just before the Civil War. Union churches accept ministers from almost any denomination in their pulpits. The county was the scene of frequent camp meetings both before and after the Civil War. Following the war an Episcopal church was established in Calvert headed by the Reverend J. Wilkins Tray. Catholic churches arrived with the railroad in the 1870s to serve the Irish workmen who built and operated the railroads and, later, to minister to the Polish immigrants who settled at Bremond. St. Mary's Catholic Church was located in Hearne during the 1870s, and another church by the same name was established in Bremond in 1888. Methodist and Baptist churches continue to be the predominate Protestant groups in the county today, although a number of other denominations also maintain congregations.

The county's first school, Franklin Academy, was organized in Old Franklin in 1838, and in the years prior to the Civil War several churches operated private schools. The first public schools opened in the late 1850s. During the Civil War public education was suspended, but in 1867 eight public schools reopened, and in 1868 the county court passed a measure establishing the first school districts. Since that time the county education system has seen various changes and consolidations. In the early 1990s there were five school districts, with six elementary, one middle, and four high schools. Average daily attendance was 2,800. Education levels have traditionally been quite low in the county but have seen some improvement during the second half of the twentieth century. However, many of the county's best educated young people continue to leave to seek better opportunities elsewhere.

In the early 1990s Robertson County's economy was still closely tied to agriculture, and ranching and farming were the leading industries. Beef and dairy cattle were the largest source of income. Leading crops included cotton, sorghums, small grains, watermelons, and corn. Leading industries were agribusinesses, brick manufacturing, and a power-generating plant. Other important sources of revenue included oil and natural gas and lignite mining.

Politically Robertson County has staunchly in the Democratic camp for most of its history. Since the end of Reconstruction Democratic presidential candidates have won nearly every election. From 1960 through 2000 the only Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of votes was Richard Nixon, who outpolled George McGovern by a single ballot in 1972. Democrats also maintained control of the local offices and have generally fared well in statewide races. In the early twenty-first century, however, Republicans began to be more competitive in local elections. George W. Bush took the county in the 2004 presidential election with about 55 percent of the vote.

In 2014 the census counted 16,500 people living in Robertson County. About 58.3 percent were Anglo, 21.3 percent were African American, and 19.2 percent were Hispanic. Seventy percent of residents age twenty-five and older had four years of high school, and more than 25 percent had college degrees. In the early twenty-first century agribusiness, oil and gas production, and small manufacturing were important elements of the area&rsquos economy. In 2002 the county had 1,555 farms and ranches covering 515,311 acres, 46 percent of which were devoted to pasture, 33 percent to crops, and 18 percent to woodlands. In that year local farmers and ranchers earned $515,311,000, with crop sales accounting for $63,218,000 of that total. Beef cattle, cotton, and hay were the chief agricultural products. More than 2,295,000 barrels of oil and 71,256,092 cubic feet of gas-well gas were produced in the county in 2004 by the end of that year 25,984,999 barrels of oil had been taken from county lands since 1944. Franklin (population, 1,617) is the county&rsquos seat of government and Hearne (4,486) its largest town. Other communities include Calvert (1,149), Bremond (915), Wheelock (225), Mumford (170), and New Baden (150). Tourist attractions include hunting, fishing, historic sites, the County Music Jamboree, and the county fair held in Hearne in March.

Watch the video: New ABRAH cultivator by DULKS Hoeing right next to young, tender plants


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